A Remarkable eta-product Identity
Michael Somos 11 Dec 2014
ms639@georgetown.edu
(draft version 9)
Early in 2005 I discovered a remarkable eta-product identity that was known most probably to a very few people implicitly and even fewer explicitly. In order to state the identity we first define the infinite product
 h(q) : = q(1/24)(1-q)(1-q2)(1-q3)(1-q4) ...
where |q| < 1 is required for convergence. This is the Dedekind eta function defined in terms of q. For brevity let en : = h(qn). For example, e1 = h(q), e2 = h(q2), and so on. The following level 60 three term identity holds
 e2 e6 e10 e30 = e1 e12 e15 e20 + e3 e4 e5 e60.
Notice that each term is the product of distinct eta-function factors. That is, each term is linear in each factor of h(qn) which appears. This seems to be the only identity of its kind. More precisely, here is my conjecture :
Given a finite set S of positive integers, define the eta-product E(S) to be the product over all n in S of h(qn). There exists a unique triple (S1,S2,S3) such that E(S1) = E(S2) + E(S3) where the three sets are pairwise disjoint and the GCD of the union is 1. That triple is ({2,6,10,30}, {1,12,15,20}, {3,4,5,60}). Of course, S2 and S3 can be swapped giving the same identity without affecting uniqueness.
I conjecture this based on my database of thousands of eta-product identities which available at URL "http://eta.math.georgetown.edu/". As evidence I have used systematic search by computer program up to level 250 and have found no other three term identity like this one. However I found a similar level 210 four term identity which is as follows
 e1 e30 e35 e42 + e3 e10 e14 e105 = e2 e15 e21 e70 + e5 e6 e7 e210.
If we allow non disjoint sets and a numerical coefficient of 2 then there is a level 30 four term identity which is as follows
 e1 e2 e15 e30 + e3 e5 e6 e10 = e1 e3 e5 e15 + 2 e2 e6 e10 e30.
My unique three term identity is related to the McKay-Thompson series of class 60D for which see sequences A058728 and A143751 in Neil Sloane's OEIS and more details of which are in my less frequently updated database on Monstrous Moonshine also available upon request. More information about h(q) is in my essay "A Multisection of q-Series" which is available on the web.

File translated from TEX by TTH, version 3.82.
On 11 Dec 2014, 02:02.